BURN TREATMENT AND BURN OPERATION
There are many factors that cause burn injury. The most common cause of burns is hot liquids (such as hot water, tea) and the most important factor affecting the degree of burn is the temperature of the liquid and the exposure time. In addition, flame burns, flash burns, contact burns, and electrical burns are other common types of burns. Burn treatment and burn operation enable to repair and remove burn injuries and scars.
The factors that determine the severity of the burn include the width, depth, localization of the burn, age and general health of the patient and the burn cause.
Burns are classified according to their degrees.
First degree burns; Sunburn can be given as an example of first-degree burns. In these burns, the upper layer of the skin, called epidermis, is affected and it is quite painful. It is treated with topical ointments.
Second degree burns; 2nd degree burns are classified as superficial and deep burns. In superficial burns, fluid-filled vesicles are formed as characteristic. They are usually healed developing pigmentation within 3 weeks but the scar tissue development is not expected very much. In the case of 2nd degree deep burns, the event is in the deep dermis and the development of the scar tissue and contracture is usually observed.
Third degree burns; Full-thickness burns and the injury extend to all layers of the skin. In these patients, reconstructive surgery such as skin grafts and flap repair may be needed.
Which Patients Require Inpatient Treatment
– Those below the age of 10 or above the age of 50 with 2nd and 3rd degree burn corresponding to more than 10% of the total body area (TBA)
– Those with 2nd and 3rd degree burn corresponding to more than 20% TBA, excluding the above-mentioned patient group
– Electrical burns
– Inhalation burns
– Chemical burns
– Genital area burns
– Patients with an accompanying disease or trauma
What are the important points in the treatment?
In burn treatment applications, the first and most important step in burn patients is to provide adequate liquid and electrolyte support to the patient. In patients with a hospitalization requirement, depending on the degree of the burn and the surface width, the amount of liquid to be calculated should be supplemented by the vessel, by considering the parameters such as urine output and CVP.
The immune system of the burn patient has been suppressed and the integrity of the skin, the most important defence system against microorganisms, has been disrupted. This is why serious and fatal infections may occur in these patients. Wound care and antibiotic therapy in the burn treatment process is another important area.
In burn patients, who are healed as a result of the burn treatment, contractures, i.e. pulling in joints, function losses, scar tissue formation can be seen due to wound healing. Among appropriate methods for their prevention; reconstruction, splinting, physiotherapy, use of compressive clothing, silicone sheet and use of cream to prevent scar formation are very important.
Late Period Treatments in Burn Patients
The most common late period complications in burn patients are the formation of bad traces, called scar, and the formation of skin bands that restrict movement in the joint area, called contracture. Tissue expander applications and skin graft or flap repair by opening the contracture can be used in their treatment.